Portuguese Saddles Create Oneness between Rider and Horse



One of the best known horse saddles among horse breeders and equestrian sport lovers come from the Iberian Peninsula and Portugal has made a name for itself as having one of the finest saddles in the market.  The country’s rich historic traditions of military cavalry and a cultural fondness for equestrian sports among its population guaranteed a thriving industry for horse saddles and other accessories for breeding and training of horses, especially its world-famous Lusitano thoroughbred.Going on horseback riding requires the rider and the horse to be one in order to get into the feel and a natural control over the horse.  A saddle is meant to create this intimacy between man and best and the Portuguese saddle has been doing just that for centuries.  But not much is known about its craft until around the close of the 18th century when a 1790 print of the book entitled “Luz da Liberal, e Nobre Arte da Cavallaria” from a Portuguese author Manoel Carlos de Andrade shows an illustration of the first known image of the traditional Portuguese saddle used at that time.Modern Saddle ModelsToday, Portuguese saddles have evolved into various designs that have grown from the same basic concept as illustrated in the 1790 book but carrying innovative design and construction technique as well as more flexible materials that make the rider and the horse more comfortable with each other.• The Sela Portuguesa is the traditional Portuguese saddle that has its direct roots to the 18th century baroque saddle designs. • The Portuguese Equitation saddle has the required design structure that complies with equitation standards for the right riding posture in horse show equitation and equestrian tournaments.• The Ribatejo is a more contemporary Portuguese saddle with a liberal intermediate design between the Portuguesa and the Relvas saddles and is as they are marketed today, can be among the most expensive saddles in the market.• The Relvas is among the best known traditional Portuguese saddle that inherits a unique design that can be traced back in time to Carlos Relvas, hence, the name.  He was a 19th century aristocrat, sportsman, horse lover and bullfighter whose design allows the saddle to be used for either horseback riding or bullfighting.• The Mista is an evolved Portuguese saddle combining the traditional look, material and crafting technique behind a Portuguese saddle with the Relvas design.  • The D. Dinis is a modern Portuguese saddle that creates a unique mix of innovative saddle-making techniques with the traditional Portuguese equitation saddle design. • The D.Dominguez saddle carries a contemporary multipurpose design and construction which blends the distinct Portuguese Relvas saddle with English equestrian saddles. It uses an all-leather material from the frame to the seats while harnessing the flexibility and strength of marine plywood for its saddle tree that gets steel reinforcement. GP

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India is a big country with  diverse culture, creed, religion, caste , languages, cuisine, attire , dances and climate. Despite of this heterogeneity there is sense of integrity and oneness among the people who live together being proud of their deep rooted values and richness of cultural heritage, thus India could be justly acclaimed as a Land of Unity in Diversity.

When we talk about India, lot of images come alive on the panel of our mind portraying diversity as the core essence of Indian heritage. Being a beaming model to the other nations of the world, the residents of India are far famed for their amiable hospitality of “atithi devo bhave” and impeccable love and respect for their motherland.

The Indian continent is profusely diverse in terms of various facets as delineated below:-

Multifarious Cuisine

Widely commentated to have a varied taste, Indian food is as diversified as its culture. A distinct flavour and aroma is peculiar to every region due to incorporation of assorted spices and ingredients. The Indian cuisine could be broadly classified into four categories –

North Indian- With rotis being the staple diet of the region, people of northern region also enjoy an assortment of lentils and vegetables. The food is lightly spiced and there is a distinct demarcation in vegetarian and non-vegetarian class of people. A lavish amount of spices and condiments is used to add that exotic fragrance to the meals.

South Indian – The food is mostly steamed or roasted. Rice constitutes the main ingredient of dishes that are served with a thin liquid called Rasam and a gentle gravy called Sambar. Chutneys are popular in this region with tamarind, curd and coconut mostly used as raw material. All food items are highly flavoured with curry leaves.

East India – Primarily non vegetarians, with fish being the dominating ingredient, the East Indians incorporate a generous amount of chillies and other hot spices to it’s food stuff. Rice is the basic accompaniment to various curries, stews and gravies that are relished by the dwellers.

Western India – Largely henpecked by the deserts, the western region is dry and desiccate hence the food is cooked with minimum amount of water. Most of the dishes are made of ground lentil. The food is relished steamed or roasted with dry spices. There is abundant use of chutney and pickles and non vegetarian is rarely found.

Diverse Climatic Conditions

The diverse and complex topography of Indian continent witnesses a huge contradiction in weather conditions ranging from equatorial to alpine, tropical to continental type. Temperatures can differ drastically from region to region. The Indo-Gangetic plains observe very hot summers and freezing winters while east part of the country is lush green with plenty of rain round the year. The south and western region is hot and humid and deserts are dry and airy.


A unique amalgamation of customs and traditions is the essence of diverse Indian  culture. A variation in topography, climate, language and culture imparts that variableness to the tradition across the continent. Most of this uniqueness comes from ancient Indian scriptures and texts that have found place in the lives of people.  

The tradition of doing Namaste :- India is well known and represented by it’s tradition of greeting with  Namaste, indicated by folded palms in front of chest with a notion of submerging one’s ego and looking forward to have intellectual connection with the other person.

Multidimensional dance forms :- Without the mention of diverse dance forms encompassing various classical and folk dances from different regions, the discussion on diversity of culture remains incomplete. The most popular classical dance forms are Bharatnatyam, Kathak, Mnipuri, kathakali etc. Folk dances depict smaller regions and are performed on occasions like birth, marriage, harvest season etc. Some of the folk dances of India are Gaur Dance, Chhau Dance,Bihu Dance, Dumhal Dance, Padayani Dance etc.

Diversity of festivals :- India is a land of different religions and beliefs and thus each religion has it’s own festivals and customs attached. The Muslims celebrate Eid, Sikhs have Baisakhi, Hindus have Diwali, Holi  and  Jains have Mahavir Jayanti. All these festivals are celebrated with great mirth and enthusiasm and calls for holidays in Indian calender.

Diverse Attire :- Clothing differs from region to religion and Indians wear both ethnic and western attire. They have their own traditional wear like dhoti, kurta, sari, sherwani, turban etc. People are more particular about wearing their traditional dresses on festivals and special occasions to denote their culture and beliefs attached. 

Diversity in language and Religion :-

India is a place of conjugation of many religions. People of different religions, caste and creed speaking different languages live peacefully and respect each other. Here Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Jews, Buddhists and Jains follow different social customs and perform different rituals. More than 200 languages are present in this country like Hindi, Malyalam, TeluguFind Article, Oriya etc with English language playing a major role in unifying the educated class.

Oneness vs. The 1%: #VandanaShiva at the United Nations Office at Geneva

World-renowned eco-feminist and “rock star of the environmental movement”, Vandana Shiva, presents her latest book “Oneness vs. The 1%”, equal parts a sobering warning on the dangers to human rights and biodiversity of the elite-led extractive economy of our time, and a profound reflection on why this is a unique moment to collectively correct the false construction of capital as the sole force of wealth (and well-being). Her presentation opened the second day of UNRISD conference, “Overcoming Inequalities in a Fractured World: Between Elite Power and Social Mobilization”.

UNRISD International Conference is a forum for analysis and dialogue that brought together academics, UN representatives, policy makers and civil society. Learn more: http://www.unrisd.org/conference2018