India – Unity in Diversity | Educational Video For Kids | Periwinkle

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India – Unity in Diversity | Educational Video For Kids | Periwinkle

India – Unity in Diversity | Educational Video For Kids | Periwinkle

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{articles|100|campaign}ALL KINDS OF CHILDREN 🌎 DIVERSE CULTURE story book for kids MULTICULTURAL follow along reading book

All Kinds of Children by Norma Simon  
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Diverse culture story book for kids.
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There are many differences among people and cultures, but no matter the culture diversity all children have the same needs and desires. They all require food and clothing, they all like to play and listen to stories, and they all want to be loved in this multicultural story books.

🌟 GRADE LEVEL: PRE K – 3
🌟 AGE LEVEL: 4 – 8

Author: Norma Simon
Publisher: Albert Whitman & Company (1999)
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Image from page 101 of “The Civil engineer and architect’s journal, scientific and railway gazette” (1839)
Title: The Civil engineer and architect’s journal, scientific and railway gazette
Identifier: civilengineerarc09lond
Year: 1839 (1830s)
Authors:
Subjects: Architecture; Civil engineering; Science
Publisher: London : [William Laxton]
Contributing Library: Northeastern University, Snell Library
Digitizing Sponsor: Northeastern University, Snell Library

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About This Book: Catalog Entry
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Text Appearing Before Image:
86 THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. [Makch, by an ancient epigram on (he statue of Jupiter in ivory and Rold, in a tem. pie similar to the I’arlheuon, namely, that if the god rose he would carry the roof with him; while the eiilire closing the roof and consequent ex- clusion of the best light for a statue, the light of day, seems very impro- bable- A partial opening admitting light, by the means of some semi- transparent substance, appears in the absence of all proof the most feasible supposition. As to the columns that supported the roof equal obscurity exists, the most probable supposition being the last one on the subject, and which has only been lately brought to light on destroying the mosque, in 1814. M. Pittakis, in a letter to me on the subject, gives it as his belief, that the traces of Doric columns found on this removal of the mosque, with a diameter of fire feet, supported an upper tier of the Ionic order. This statement of the diameter of the lower or Doric tier, being of the proportions of live feet in diameter, is confirmed by the personal observations of Mr. ISracebridge, and of Mr. Penrose. On the other hand, in letters read at this Institution, from Mr. Knowles, a month since, the diameter is given at 3ft. 7J in. I am at a loss to account for this great discrepancy on a subject so interest, ing, and apparently so easy to be ascertained. Now admitting the Doric to have been the original structure, and live feet the diameter, it then appears from the following diagram that there would be no space for an upper tier, for if it be an Ionic one, it must have been disproportionately 8niall compared with the bulky Doric below. Supposing the Doric to hare been used, I am rather disposed to believe that an upper tier could not have been used, but that some other architectural feature must here be substituted. No. 1. No. 2. No. 3

Text Appearing After Image:
6 feet 2. fi feet 6. S feet. 3 feet 6. No. 1 Outer Column.âNo. 2 Column of the Pronsus.âNo. 3 Size of the traces of Columns lately discovered.âNo. 4. The arrangement of the interior in the restoration. AVith regard to the chief sources of authentic information as to the use of colours by the ancients, the subject has beeu exhausted by the able remarks of the various writers on this matter; Mr. Hamilton, in his translation of the report of the committee who investigated the mar- bles of the Parthenon, appears to have had no biason the subject, and the inferences I derive from his translation are, that someof the early temples must have been white, and that others were certainly painted, but no hint is given as to the period,and as to the actual tintsonthe most perfect specimens of remaining colour in the temple of Theseus, Semper found some blue colour â nder the necks of one of the anta:, and therefore drew the conclusion that the whole of the wall of the cella was blue. Scheubert on the other hand sayshe found on thesame spot colour, and that it was yellow,and yellow in his opinion was the colour of the cella. Another observer found what he con- sidered red, and draws similar conclusions. But although this discrepancy exists on this point, all agree in stating that above and below the frieze, iu the Parlhenon, the meander ornament was painted in a reddish brown. On that brown, gold has been discovered, and therefore some suppose the colour to have been the ground for the gold, and this also applies to the elegant palm leaves, on the facia, below the triglyphs and the ornament on the pediment. Admitting as we must, from the amount of evidence that the Greeks did use much colour on their works, yet with regard to tlie actual mode of applying it, or the period of its most general use, we are in a state of great uncertainty. It has been observed respecting the purity or impurity of taste in the use of colour by the Greeks, that this consideration was foreign to a resto- ration, that it was for us to decide on the question by the proofs as adduced, and that in restoring we must restore colour as demonstrated, and that wo have no right to set any fastidious idea of our own in the use of colour ia opposition to the practice of the Greeks, where that practice admits of proof. To this however I would beg to demur, that from our practice in the use of colour, we have no right to assume, that the ancient Greeks «sed colour as we now apply it, especially in their application of it to their highest uses in painting their divinities. We have it in eridence that the columns of the Parthenon were painted red, but the circumstance that the paint exists iu the openin); of the joints of the columns demonstrates that the colour was applied at a late period, subsequent perhaps to some earthquake or other commotion, because on the completion of the temple the joints were so close as to prevent the insertion of colour. Now it does ap- pear to me, that of a style of art so severe and chaste as the architecture and sculpture of the Parthenon, the high excellence can only be com- prehended and appreciated, by our having still in existence enough of the precious fragments to form some conception of theeffectsof the whole. What kind of idea could we have formed of the architecture and sculpture from mere description or fragmentary evidence? Let us reflectâwtiat idea does our own art give us of the perfection of Greek art, except as a close imitation of that which actually exists. M’ithout the actual work of the Greek artists before us, who could have propounded any resuscitation of its high excellence eiiher in form or execution ? And in like manner from the nature of things, I am entitled to contend that in the best times of Greek art, where colour was applied, it was used with equal severity, chastity, skill and purity, as the sculpture and architecture demonstrate, and therefore reasoning from analogy as from fragments alone, we could not hope to restore as a whole, neither can we in colour hope to reconstruct with our limited opportunity of observing, not so much perhaps as to the actual tints as to the mechanical application of them, after the beautiful sculpture had received all its wonderful discriminative touches, th* marking of bone, tendon and muscle. Does it seem probable that men of such cultivated tastes would have smeared over these highly wrought forms with oil and earth ? Does it not. Sir, seem more probable that the surface was stained with colour, not coated with a pigment? in using colour to embody the forms of their deities, we may be assured that the same amount of skill, pure taste, and beautiful appliance would be used as was shown in producing and finishing the actual form. Viewed in this light, it is by the power of the imagination, and this power alone, that we of these latter dajs can comprehend the glorious aspect of the Parthenon, in its integrity of colour as well as form. It may be that my bias may render me an incompetent judge on this subject, but I have searched with much assiduity, and I believe that all the colour I have seen results from the surface being stained, not painted. In some parts colour re- maining, shews the pure surface of the marble where it has been protected by the pediment; and where exposed. In some parts the original surface is still preserved by the means applied to tint it, and as the other surrounding portions are deeply corroded by time or drip, so I believe that the process of tinting hardened and preserved the semi- transparency of the marble; and of that mode of execution as applied to sculpture, I do not thiuk we have acquired the secret. Having thus briefly explained the structure and decorations of the Parthenon, we proceed in our endeavours to investigate the principles of design that characterise this great work of Phidias and Ictious. The etfect which their work creates on our minds appears everywhere to be produced by the same means,âvariety and contrast in unityâwhether in its architectural construction, in the selection of the subjects for the sculptures, or iu their composition and treatment. In the architecture, the solemn and rigorous uniformity of its masses, and the severe proportions of the columns, contrast marvellously with the boundless diversity of the lines of the sculpture. And while unity is thus preserved by the symme- trical character of the whole structure, clearly and intelligibly stated to the eye, and commanding the observance of the mind, the attention is enchained and preserved by the beautiful and harmonious play of light and shade resulting from the inner columns of the pronaus being smaller than the outer, and being placed on steps, which c.irry the inner architrave higher than the outer. The beautiful frieze is thus placed above the spectator’s first glance, and reserves for him beauties veiled from his first impression, and therefore far more effective in their unobtrusive display at the proper period. It was thus, by an inexhaustible power of invention that Phidias pro- duced that great impression, which all minds gifted with a perception of the beautiful acknowledge, in the contemplation of the Parthenon; and, for ourselves, let it be our study to dwell on these noble works, and to seek to imbue ourselves with their spirit and power, in the choice of noble theme, in composition and treatment. This, then, is the proper influence these noble examples should exercise on our art, to produce a truly National School of Sculpture; for we cannot be blind to the circumstance, that merely re- peating the/wrms of Greek art; must altogether fail in producing such a desideratum, (Jreek art was perfect because it was national, because its peculiarities suited alike the national feeling and the national religion. An attempt to repeat the mere forms, whether united to their myths or without that appendage, must fail to satisfy in any department of art, as far as regards the producing an English School, either in poetry or sculpture, painting or architecture ; yet the contemplation of the myths of the Greeks is full of interest and use, as adding to the amount of our knowledge of the operations of the human mind, and here we may learn how man sometimes produces results so perfect as to become laws, and at it were to form an eternal model of fitness and propriety, the result of wants perfectly supplied, of ideas perfectly embodied, of uational feelings incorporated with and represented by national emblems. It requires indeed a considerable knowledge of (ireck art to be able to appreciate the full amount of influence it may exercise, and a still more Iborongh acquaintance with their works, to comprehend their real scope and

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