Image from page 171 of “The street railway review” (1891)
Image from page 171 of “The street railway review” (1891)
Title: The street railway review
Year: 1891 (1890s)
Authors: American Street Railway Association Street Railway Accountants’ Association of America American Railway, Mechanical, and Electrical Association
Publisher: Chicago : Street Railway Review Pub. Co
Contributing Library: Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh
Digitizing Sponsor: Lyrasis Members and Sloan Foundation
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as being the most pro-gressive in Great Britain. One of its great problems hasbeen to devise a suitable traction system leading into thecongested centers of business. The streets are so crowdedthat the speed of trolley cars would necessarily be veryslow, and in many places the streets are too narrow to per-mit the construction of an elevated road. Hence it wasthought that only an underground line would be adequatefor the conditions. A company was formed in 1887 and abill introduced in Parliament; this was defeated because ofobjections to driving tunnels under the Clyde. Subse-quently permits were granted to construct tunnels forpedestrians and vehicles, and, a precedent having beenformed, the Subway Company was successful in 1889 withits petition to Parliament. The line is tunneled throughout its length of 6| miles andis roughly oval in shape. For the most part the tunnelsare under the streets, as elsewhere a private right of wayhad to be purchased. The average depth to the top of the
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FIG. I.—EXAMPLE OF IRON TUNNELING. tunnels is 29 ft., the greatest depth being 115 ft. and theleast 7 ft. The tunnels are practically two endless cylin-drical tubes, 11 ft. in diameter, being from 2 ft. 6 in. to 6 ft.apart and connected at intervals of 75 ft. by manholes, andat the stations the tunnels are merged into one arch of 28ft. span. The grades are not excessive, none being over5.5 per cent, and no curves have a radius of less than 660ft. Many difficulties were met with in the tunneling, as itwas necessary to pass through shale, sandstone, coal, clay,sand and mud. One portion of the tunnels passed undei-important buildings and railway shops, and to avoid allrisk of a collapse the construction shown in Fig. i wasadopted. Tunneling shields were used on this section.Each ring of the iron tube is 12 ft. in diameter and 18 in. inlength. In passing under the river the air pressure in thetunnel blew up the bottom of the river no less than 10times, but the work was completed after s
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