First Swallows (1960)
First Swallows (1960)
LSSR State Prize, 1966; exhibited at the World Expo-67 Montreal , Canada ).
An enlarged version of the sculpture, cast in bronze in 1987, installed near the National Gallery of Art in Vilnius.
Ninth Fort Museum
Juozas Mikėnas (12 February 1901 , Skardupis village, Aknysta parish , Russian Empire (now the Republic of Latvia) – October 24 , 1964 , Vilnius , LSSR , buried in Antakalnis cemetery ) – one of the most famous Lithuanian sculptors, the pioneer of modern sculpture in Lithuania .
Sister Akvilė Mikėnaitė , brother Jonas Mikėnas , daughter Rima Mikėnaitė . 1920 studied in drawing courses in Kaunas with Justinas Vienožinskis , 1922 – 1926 . Kaunas Art School with Kajeton Skliss , 1926 – 1927 In Paris, he attended studies by A. Lhot and Shuchayev (the so-called Russian Academy). 1927 – 1931 studied at the Higher School of Decorative Arts , the National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts and the Giulian Academy .
1931 – 1940 Kaunas Art Schools , 1940 – 1941 Vilnius Art Schools, 1941 – 1943 and 1944 – 1945 Vilnius Art Academy, 1945 – 1946 Vilnius Art Institute, 1946 – 1951 Kaunas Applied and Decorative Arts Institute, 1951 – 1964 Lecturer at the Lithuanian Art Institute . 1946 – 1961 Head of Sculpture Department, since 1946 Professor. 1955 Member of the USSR Academy of Fine Arts, correspondent.
From 1928 participated in exhibitions in Lithuania and abroad (Paris, Moscow ); individual exhibitions: Vilnius – 1962 , 1971 , 1976 , 1991 , Moscow – 1962 , Kaunas – 1976 1932 – 1934 participated in the activities of the group Ars , created the poster of the first exhibition.
The most significant area of creation is sculpture . During the early period of creation, he created sculptures ("Portrait of a Friend" in 1928 , "The Head of the Sailor" in 1930 ), which are characterized by documentality, accuracy of modeling. In later years, constructivity and geometry of forms emerged; in some ("Girl", "Viktor Vizgirda", both in 1932 ), there are prominent features of postcubism , architation, others ("The Head of the Man" in 1935 ) – various synthesis of forms, elements of stylization.
Lyrizism, poetry, and the tendency to monumentality emerged in the compositions of the second half of the 1930s ("The Child with Pigeon" in 1935 , "Vincukas" in 1938 , "Girl in the Fields" in 1939 , reliefs "Woman with a carpenter" in 1936 ), and portraits ("Wife" in 1936 , "Woman" in 1938 ).
He created ornamental sculptures for world exhibitions – Paris ("Rustling" in 1937 , the Grand Prix of the Exhibition; Decorative Bas-relief) and New York ("Lithuania" in 1939 ), characterized by serenity, generalized, sleek shapes.
The sculptures of the 1950s and 1950s are more dynamic, with patos appearing in them: sculptural group "Learning young people" on the Green Bridge in Vilnius (with J. Kėdainis , 1952 ), sculpture " Marytė Melnikaitė " ( 1955 , Zarasai , now Grūto Park , Druskininkai ) , Petras Cvirka ( 1959 , Vilnius).
Camera sculptures are characterized by a dynamic silhouette and rhythm of lines (reliefs "Dance" in 1946 , "Maternity", "Fishermen", both in 1946 ), portraits of human psychological ("Rima" in 1955 , "Portrait of the Young Pianist" in 1958 ) .), Ethnic Features (“The National” in 1957 , “Fisherman, Fisherman’s Daughter and Me” in 1961 , “Dzūkas and the Grandson” in 1964 ).
Monumentalism, harmony of proportions, compact silhouette, inner seriousness and lady-like environment with late sculptures: "Taika" ( 1960 ), "Our Sun" ( 1962 ), "First Swallows" (created in 1964 , enlarged copy 1987 was built near the National Gallery of Art in Vilnius).
He created mosaics ("The Head of the Young Man", "The Head of the Girl" about 1931 , "The Head of Christ" in the facade of the Church of the God of Kaunas , with Matuzevicius , 1932 , "The Worker" in 1934 ).
Illustrated books (Petras Cvirka. "Daily Stories", Kazys Boruta . "Wooden Wonders", both in 1938 ), watercolors ("By the Sea" in 1956 , "Palanga", "Nida", both in 1958 , " Near the lake in 1961 , he created drawings (mainly acts, "Leda", until 1939 ).
His work influenced the development of Lithuanian sculpture. His works are held by the Lithuanian Art Museum .
Warrior in the belfry of Vytautas the Great War Museum , Kaunas, 1938
Mother, Bas-relief , Marble , 1935; Kaunas Čiurlionis Art Museum .
"Woodcutter", plaster , 1937-1938; Kaunas Čiurlionis Art Museum.
Lithuania, Lithuanian Pavilion at the World Exhibition in New York, Plaster, 1939
Victory, part of the monument for soldiers – Guardians killed in Königsberg , Bronze, 1946; Stalin Prize , 1947, Kaliningrad .
Monument to Maryt Melnikaitė , Zarasai , bronze, 1947-1955
Sculptural group "Learning young people", 1952, together with Juozas Kėdainis , Green Bridge in Vilnius
Young pianist, bronze, 1958, Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow.
Monument to the writer Petr Cvirka in Vilnius, 1959, architects Vladislovas Mikučianis , Ignas Laurušas .
Peace, plaster, 1960
The museum at the Ninth Fort outside Kaunas, Lithuania, was built during the Soviet era. It contained artifacts, photos, documents and other displays relating to the Nazi occupation of Lithuania and their murderous assaults upon Jews there.
After Lithuania regained its independence, the exhibits were expanded to cover the Soviet takeover of Lithuania and the Soviet state’s subsequent deportation, murder and/or oppression of people it perceived as enemies.
The Ninth Fort (Lithuanian: Devintas Fortas) is a stronghold in the northern part of Šilainiai elderate, Kaunas, Lithuania. It is a part of the Kaunas Fortress, which was constructed in the late 19th century. During the occupation of Kaunas and the rest of Lithuania by the Soviet Union, the fort was used as a prison and way-station for prisoners being transported to labour camps. After the occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany, the fort was used as a place of execution for Jews, captured Soviets, and others.
At the end of the 19th century the city of Kaunas was fortified and by 1890 was encircled by eight forts and nine gun batteries. Construction of the Ninth Fort (its numerical designation having become its name) began in 1902 and was completed on the eve of World War I. From 1924 on, the Ninth Fort was used as the Kaunas City prison.
During the years of Soviet occupation, 1940–1941, the Ninth Fort was used by the NKVD to house political prisoners pending transfer to Gulag forced labor camps.
During the years of Nazi occupation, the Ninth Fort was put to use as a place of mass murder. At least 10,000 Jews, most from Kaunas and largely taken from the Kovno Ghetto, were transported to the Ninth Fort and killed by Nazis with the collaboration of some Lithuanians in what became known as the Kaunas massacre.
Notable among the victims was Rabbi Elchonon Wasserman of Baranovitch. In addition, Jews from as far as France, Austria and Germany were brought to Kaunas during the course of Nazi occupation and executed in the Ninth Fort. In 1943, the Germans operated special Jewish squads to dig mass graves and burn the remaining corpses. One squad of 62 people managed to escape the fortress on the eve of 1944. That year, as the Soviets moved in, the Germans liquidated the ghetto and what had by then come to be known as the "Fort of Death". The prisoners were dispersed to other camps. After World War II, the Soviets again used the Ninth Fort as a prison for several years. From 1948 to 1958, farm organizations were managed from the Ninth Fort.
In 1958, a museum was established in the Ninth Fort. In 1959, an exhibition was prepared in four cells, telling of the Nazi war crimes carried out in Lithuania. In 1960, the discovery, cataloging, and forensic investigation of local mass murder sites began in an effort to gain knowledge regarding the scope of these crimes.
The monument in May 2014.
The Ninth Fort museum contains collections of historical artifacts related both to Soviet atrocities and the Nazi genocide, as well as materials related to the earlier history of Kaunas and Ninth Fort. Most exhibits are labelled in English.
The memorial to the victims of Nazism at the Ninth Fort in Kaunas, Lithuania, was designed by sculptor A. Ambraziunas. Erected in 1984, the monument is 105 feet (32 m) high. The mass burial place of the victims of the massacres carried out in the fort is a grass field, marked by a simple yet frankly worded memorial written in several languages. It reads, "This is the place where Nazis and their assistants killed about 45,000 Jews from Lithuania and other European countries."
On April 11, 2011, the memorial to the victims of Nazism was vandalized — the memorial tombstones were knocked down, and white swastikas were spray-painted on the memorial. On the adjacent sidewalk, the words “Juden raus” (German: Jews Out) were inscribed.
For another point of view about the Ninth Fort and what it represents, read the article "I can see why ‘double genocide’ is a term Lithuanians want. But it appals me." in the Guardian at this link:
By A.Davey on 2017-09-14 15:37:44
Here are 7 books for CTOs from people-management, leveraging tech, embracing change, and more, these books are an invaluable source of practical knowledge.
Building the tech infrastructure of your business, choosing the right tools, and outlining a foolproof technical strategy, all while managing a diverse team of engineers — if you’re a CTO, then this is probably what your day looks like.
And when you have a never-ending list of responsibilities, a team to lead, and deadlines to deliver, keeping up with the latest technologies and management strategies can be difficult. And that’s why we’ve curated a list of books that you can read when you unwind after a long day at work.
In this piece, we discuss seven books for CTOs — books that can give you all the advice that you’ll ever need. From people-management to leveraging new technologies, embracing change, and understanding your engineers, these seven books can prove to be an invaluable source of practical knowledge that you can use on a daily basis.
1. Modern CTO
Author: Joel Beasley
Modern CTO by Joel Beasley is one of the most recommended books for CTOs for many reasons. Joel first began writing code at the age of 13 and went on to sell his first technology for one million dollars when he was only 18 years old. Today, Joel is a CTO, working with clients ranging from start-ups to billion-dollar enterprises.
Modern CTO is a book that is based directly on Joel Beasley’s personal experience, where he talks about the challenges he faced, lessons learned, and things to avoid when you’re a CTO.
“You’ve got to be able to communicate in life, it’s enormously important. Schools, to some extent, to emphasize that. If you can’t communicate and talk to other people and get across your ideas, you’re giving up your potential.” – Joel Beasley
Why you should read it:
Modern CTO is a book that is based on a simple, yet fundamental principle — developers are not CTOs, but developers can learn how to be CTOs.
Through this book, you can learn how to successfully navigate the unexplored transition between the role of a developer and a CTO. You’ll also learn how to manage people and deadlines, know when to abandon a sinking ship and build a better one, deal with poor code, steer clear of some common UX mistakes, and more. Modern CTO is the ultimate guidebook if you’re making the transition from ‘a’ developer to ‘the’ CTO.
2. Managing Humans: Biting and Humorous Tales of a Software Engineering Manager
Author: Michael Lopp
Micheal Lopp, a Silicon Valley-based engineering manager, is known for his unique writings across a range of diverse topics such as people management, pens, and werewolves!
What makes Managing Humans a must-read book for CTOs is the humourous yet insightful management experiences of the author at Apple, Netscape, Borland, and Symantec, among others. Based in Silicon Valley, where a dull day at work includes throwing chairs and yelling at each other, Micheal Lopp has managed to pull no punches to deliver stories that will speak to you.
Why you should read it:
Micheal Lopp believes that writing code is easy. Managing humans is not, and that’s why you need a book to help you do it. Whether you’re an aspiring CTO, a current CTO, or if you’re simply wondering what a day in the life of a CTO looks like, look no further.
The book also highlights fundamental leadership aspects such as dealing with your boss, handling conflicts, hiring the right engineers, why everyone hates meetings, motivating employees, understanding different engineering personalities, and, most importantly, thriving in everything that you do.
There’s no doubt that this book has a substantial amount of information. But that’s exactly why people want to read it.
3. The Lean Startup
Author: Eric Ries
Eric Ries is many things — a blogger, entrepreneur, innovator, and a visionary. Also known as the ‘software guy’, Eric Ries founded the Lean Startup theory, which is aimed at shortening product development cycles to improve marketing functions.
The Lean Startup, nicknamed as the ‘Bible’ of entrepreneurship, provides a scientific approach to building and managing successful tech startups in an age where innovation is the need of the hour. The book introduces a new strategy to change how companies are built, and products launched.
“This is one of the most important lessons of the scientific method: if you cannot fail, you cannot learn.” – Eric Ries
Why you should read it:
The Lean Startup steers clear of elaborate business plans and focuses on offering entrepreneurs a way to test their vision, adapt, and adjust, to create a successful business. By doing so, it enables businesses to shift gears with agility, modifying plans on the go, inch by inch.
4. The Hard Thing About Hard Things
Author: Ben Horowitz
Ben Horowitz, the author of The Hard Thing About Hard Things, is the co-founder of Andreessen Horowitz and one of Silicon Valley’s most respected tech entrepreneurs and investors. Known for his practical advice on building a tech startup, Ben wrote this book to help CTOs maneuver the difficulties of running a tech business.
“Hard things are hard because there are no easy answers or recipes. They are hard because your emotions are at odds with your logic. They are hard because you don’t know the answer and you cannot ask for help without showing weakness.” – Ben Horowitz
Why you should read it:
The Hard Thing About Hard Things is one of the best books for CTOs because it doesn’t talk about how great it is to start a business — it talks about how difficult it is to run one. The book analyses the problems that confront tech leaders every day, the challenges, the negotiations, and dismissals, hiring developers, managing and motivating your team, cultivating a CEO mentality, knowing when to cash in, and more.
This fantastic business book mirrors humor, honesty, straight talk, and business lessons with lyrics from famous rap songs. A must-read for veteran tech entrepreneurs as well as those who are aspiring to create their own new ventures.
Discover more to know must-read books for CTO’s in 2020.
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